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AERATION: Punching small holes in the turf to reduce compaction and to allow air and water to reach the roots.  The best aeration method is to use a machine that leaves behind cores.

BASE GROUND STAKE:
This is usually a metal peg anchored in cement.
It is just below field level and the base fits on top of it.

BASEBALL MIX:
This is also sometimes called baseball dirt or infield mix.
It generally refers to the dirt mixture on the infield skin area.  Most baseball mixes include some combination of clay, sand, or crushed brick.  Different baseball mixes are used for the warning track, the mound, and the infield skin.


BULLPEN:
This is the area used by a pitcher to warm up for the game. 
It should include a mound and home plate - all with the proper height and distance to match the infield mound.

CALCINED CLAY:
These are clay products designed specifically for sports fields to improve drainage, reduce compaction, and absorb excess water.  They are made from clay that is heated to about 2,500 degrees and then ground up.

CLAY BRICKS:
About the size of a regular brick, these are unfired clay (also known as 'green' bricks) that are used to reinforce the batter box or the mound. 

CUTOUT:
This refers to the arc drawn from the center of a base toward the infield.  The grass is usually 'cut out' at the corners of the infield.

DECOMPOSED GRANITE:
Also known as 'DG', this is a popular material for the infield skin on park and rec fields because it is cheap and easy to maintain (read 'easy for the park guy to quickly drag it level after a game, but not necessarily good footing for players or good material for moisture management').  It is made from ground up granite and comes in a variety of colors, but gold or gray are most common. 

FIELD RAKE:
Also known as a landscape rake, this is a 3 foot wide rake with 3inch teeth on one side and a flat edge on the other side.  This is one of the best all around baseball field maintenance tools there is.

FINES:
Usually refers to material put on the infield skin.  Most of the time this is made of ground up rock and is either gray or gold.  Gray is usually much cheaper (but can you imagine a 'gray' infield that looks like you are playing on cement?) These are also known as track fines or path fines depending on how small the granite is ground up. 

FLAGGING SPRINKLERS:
This is the practice of using a small flag to mark the location of a sprinkler.  Pros are very particular about marking sprinklers such that they know exactly where the sprinkler is.  For example, always flag on the side of the sprinkler closest to the dirt.

FRENCH DRAIN:
Used to help with field drainage after rains, this is an underground trench filled with gravel and sand and covered over with dirt and turf. Pro fields can have hundreds of these underground.

HERBICIDES:
Chemicals used to kill weeds in the turf.  Application is usually dry granules or wet spray.  It usually includes fertilizer for the grass.

HOMEPLATE:
Along with being the base that scores a run, this is also the starting place for laying out a baseball or softball field.  All other measurements and placements are based on homeplate location.

INFIELD SKIN:
A common term for the dirt area between the infield turf and the outfield turf.  It includes the basepaths and the homeplate area.

LAVA ROCK:
Red crushed lava rock or crushed red brick is a common ingredient in a baseball mix.  When used as warning track material it is often 1/8 inch in size.

LIP BUILD UP:
Every time you practice or play a game, dirt buildups around the basepaths, around the bases, or at the outfield grass line.  It builds up even faster if you drag incorrectly by going over the grass line.  The problem with lip build up is bad bounces and stumbling over the bump.

NAIL DRAG:
A tool used to maintain a smooth and consistent infield surface.  Nails loosen the top 1 - 1.5 inches of the baseball or softball playing surface.

OVERSEED:
As part of good turf maintenance this is seeding at the rate of 5 pounds per 1000 square feet to improve the overall health and strength of the turf.

PESTICIDE:
Chemicals used to kill bugs in the turf.  Application is usually dry granules or wet spray.  It often is combined with fertilizer for the grass.

PITCHING TABLE:
A mound is not supposed to look like a bump or a hill on the field. It needs a large flat area at the top and then gradual sloping to the grass. For example, a high school size mound should have a top that is 3 feet by 5 feet and level.

RECLAIMED SAND:
Sand caught as it is washed out of cement trucks.  It is full of assorted small pebbles.  Ideal for filling outfield ruts or holes under the fence.  Bad idea for the infield though.

REEL MOWER:
Reel mowers are more specialized than rotary mowers and are used on higher maintenance facilitates like golf courses and athletic fields. Reel mowers are used to provide better quality cutting and allows very low cutting heights.

RENOVATE:
Think about the show 'This Old House' and the way they reconstruct a home. Sometimes 'this old field' needs the same thing - more drastic reconstruction than the usual maintenance.

ROLLING:
Using a lawn roller to settle new sod or when putting in new seed. A lawn roller or steam roller can also be used over the infield turf to level the lumps.


ROTARY MOWER:
The most common type of mower is a rotary mower. Rotary mowers
are used primarily on residential lawns.

SAND CHANNEL:
Used to help with drainage in the turf. 
A machine slices 4-6 inches into the turf and back fills with sand.

SANDING:
This is a practice of adding sand in order to level the turf subsurface. It is more commonly done on the baseball infield turf to level out low spots.

SOIL CONDITIONER:
Material mixed into the top 3-4 inches of the infield skin to prevent compaction and improve moisture absorption.

SPORTS TURF:
Refers to grass seed mixture that is designed to be cut short and hold up under competitive play on a baseball field.

SPOT SEED:
The process of adding seed to small areas where there is thin growth caused by inconsistent watering patterns or hard play.

STARTER FERTILIZER: Used when overseeding or spot seeding; the best ratio is 6-20-20.

THATCH:
Dead grass that accumulates after mowing. It is often removed in the fall by using walk-behind, self-propelled machines that spin a series of metal cutters at varying depths.


TOP DRESSING:
This is generally some combination of topsoil, sand, and compost that is put on the turf after aerating and overseeding.

TURF SUBSURFACE:
This is the topsoil right under the turf.


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